Understand the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies

Australian Digital Technologies Curriculum:

Data representation

How data is represented and structured symbolically for storage and communication, by people and in digital systems.

Data representation
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Recognise and explore patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams (ACTDIK002)

Recognise different types of data and explore how the same data can be represented in different ways (ACTDIK008)

Examine how whole numbers are used to represent all data in digital systems (ACTDIK015)

Investigate how digital systems represent text, image and audio data in binary (ACTDIK024)

Analyse simple compression of data and how content data are separated from presentation (ACTDIK035)

Representation

Representation explores how we model, construct and describe data.

Recognise patterns

Recognise patterns in data and make generalisations from those patterns.

Students can notice patterns in data and make simple generalisations (e.g. organise objects by colour or size) and predictions (e.g. how the pattern continues).

Represent data using symbols

Express data (including ideas, objects, actions) using pictures and symbols.

Students can use a picture or symbol to represent an idea, but know the picture isn't the data itself (e.g. the Australian Aboriginal flag represents the people, the land, and the sun.

Different Representations

Representing the same data in different ways allows us to process it differently.

Students can explain how the same data can be presented in different ways (e.g. four vs 4 vs IIII vs quattro) and why some are better than others in certain contexts.

Whole Number Representation

All data can be represented as whole numbers, regardless of its original form.

Students can describe how all systems convert data into numeric values, such as whole numbers used to map to characters in Unicode.

Binary

Binary representation of data involves reducing that data into a format comprised of just two symbols, and is necessary for all computing applications.

Students can explain why computers can only process data using two states due to how hardware works, and all data needs to be converted to binary for processing. This can be achieved with data of any type.

Document Representation

Documents contain information about the data they contain and how that data is presented. These are different elements of the data that should be separated.

Students can justify how separating content from presentation allows for greater flexibility and efficiency when manipulating and presenting data e.g. HTML vs. CSS, and keeps the subject of each type of data independent.

Types of data

Types of data are concerned with how and why we select different forms of representation for different purposes.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Types of data in band F-2.
Data Types

How data is represented matters, and the representation allows us to interact with that data in different ways.

Students can describe different types of data (e.g. numbers, letters, pictures) and how they communicate information.

Data Types in Digital Systems

The same data can be represented in different ways, and the way it is represented has implications for how it can be used by digital systems.

Students can explain different representations of data as they appear in digital systems, and understand that even things such as movies need to be converted into numbers to be processed.

Text

Text data is represented as numbers in digital systems.

Students can provide examples of how Unicode represents all characters in all languages as different numbers, including emoji.

Image

Image data involves representing each pixel as numbers.

Students can demonstrate how digital systems represent images as pixels, each of which has a different number associated with red, green and blue. These numbers are 0-255 as a consequence of their binary representations. There are other representations of image pixels for different purposes.

Audio

Digital systems use numbers to represent an audio wave.

Students can describe how audio data is represented by approximating an analog audio wave as a sequence of whole numbers that correspond to the voltage level.

Structured Data

The same data can be represented in different ways, and the way it is represented has implications for how it can be used by digital systems.

Students can describe some of the different ways data is structured for storage, compression, transmission and presentation.

Compression

Compression examines the methods we use to alter our representations to reduce their size for optimised communication and storage.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Compression in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Compression in band 3-4.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Compression in band 5-6.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Compression in band 7-8.
Compression

Data may be represented differently without losing important information, allowing us to communicate the same ideas in less space.

Students can explain how we can change the way data is represented to reduce its size but retain the information, using encoding techniques that often rely on patterns in data.