Understand the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies

9-10
Band 9-10
Band Description

Learning in Digital Technologies focuses on further developing understanding and skills in computational thinking such as precisely and accurately describing problems and the use of modular approaches to solutions. It also focuses on engaging students with specialised learning in preparation for vocational training or learning in the senior secondary years.

By the end of Year 10, students will have had opportunities to analyse problems and design, implement and evaluate a range of digital solutions, such as database-driven websites and artificial intelligence engines and simulations.

In Year 9 and 10, students consider how human interaction with networked systems introduces complexities surrounding access to, and the security and privacy of, data of various types. They interrogate security practices and techniques used to compress data, and learn about the importance of separating content, presentation and behavioural elements for data integrity and maintenance purposes.

Students explore how bias can impact the results and value of data collection methods and they use structured data to analyse, visualise, model and evaluate objects and events.

They learn how to develop multilevel abstractions, identify standard elements such as searching and sorting in algorithms, and explore the trade-offs between the simplicity of a model and the faithfulness of its representation.

When defining problems students consider the functional and non-functional requirements of a solution through interacting with clients and regularly reviewing processes. They consolidate their algorithmic design skills to incorporate testing and review, and further develop their understanding of the user experience to incorporate a wider variety of user needs. Students develop modular solutions to complex problems using an object-oriented programming language where appropriate, and evaluate their solutions and existing information systems based on a broad set of criteria including connections to existing policies and their enterprise potential. They consider the privacy and security implications of how data are used and controlled, and suggest how policies and practices can be improved to ensure the sustainability and safety of information systems.

Students progressively become more skilled at identifying the steps involved in planning solutions and developing detailed plans that are mindful of risks and sustainability requirements. When creating solutions, both individually and collaboratively, students comply with legal obligations, particularly with respect to the ownership of information, and when creating interactive solutions for sharing in online environments.

Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students explain the control and management of networked digital systems and the security implications of the interaction between hardware, software and users. They explain simple data compression, and why content data are separated from presentation.

Students plan and manage digital projects using an iterative approach. They define and decompose complex problems in terms of functional and non-functional requirements. Students design and evaluate user experiences and algorithms. They design and implement modular programs, including an object-oriented program, using algorithms and data structures involving modular functions that reflect the relationships of real-world data and data entities. They take account of privacy and security requirements when selecting and validating data. Students test and predict results and implement digital solutions. They evaluate information systems and their solutions in terms of risk, sustainability and potential for innovation and enterprise. They share and collaborate online, establishing protocols for the use, transmission and maintenance of data and projects.

Abstraction
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Hiding details of an idea, problem or solution that are not relevant, to focus on a manageable number of aspects.

Abstraction does not appear explicitly in the content descriptions.

However, abstraction underpins the design and progression of content descriptions between band levels for each concept.

Digital systems
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Investigate the role of hardware and software in managing, controlling and securing the movement of and access to data in networked digital systems (ACTDIK034)

Systems

Systems explores the composition of systems and their use in all aspects of our lives.

Networks

Networks describes how we connect devices together and use them to transmit data.

Security

Security is concerned with how we protect the data stored in and transmitted by systems.

Managing Data

Data is stored on a physical medium that can be accessed through software.

Students can explain the principles of data management such as account privileges and linking accounts across services.

Transmit Data

Sending and receiving data to and from digital systems.

Students can epxlain the technical details of how modern networks determine how data moves from one location to another, such as how routers use IP addresses to direct packets through a network.

Data Security

Making sure the data can only be accessed by the people it is intended for.

Students can describe some of the methods used to secure data in digital systems, such as encryption techniques, access permissions and security certificates / keys.

Data Access

How data is transferred between users/systems and which users are able to access it can be controlled by hardware and software.

Students can understand how and why managing data access is an important part of secure and reliable networks, and how software and hardware allow this to happen. This could include things such as file permissions to restrict access to sensitive data, and things such as Demilitarised Zones (DMZs) to protect data from unwanted access or unplanned loss.

Data representation
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Analyse simple compression of data and how content data are separated from presentation (ACTDIK035)

Representation

Representation explores how we model, construct and describe data.

Types of data

Types of data are concerned with how and why we select different forms of representation for different purposes.

Compression

Compression examines the methods we use to alter our representations to reduce their size for optimised communication and storage.

Document Representation

Documents contain information about the data they contain and how that data is presented. These are different elements of the data that should be separated.

Students can justify how separating content from presentation allows for greater flexibility and efficiency when manipulating and presenting data e.g. HTML vs. CSS, and keeps the subject of each type of data independent.

Structured Data

The same data can be represented in different ways, and the way it is represented has implications for how it can be used by digital systems.

Students can describe some of the different ways data is structured for storage, compression, transmission and presentation.

Compression

Data may be represented differently without losing important information, allowing us to communicate the same ideas in less space.

Students can explain how we can change the way data is represented to reduce its size but retain the information, using encoding techniques that often rely on patterns in data.

Data collection
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Develop techniques for acquiring, storing and validating quantitative and qualitative data from a range of sources, considering privacy and security requirements (ACTDIP036)

Acquire data

Acquire data examines how we collect and access data from a variety of sources.

Manage data

Manage data is concerned with the processes we use to facilitate how we use data.

Acquire data

Generate or obtain data from existing or potential data sources.

Students can describe the differences between qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative (measurable) data, and how that informs the method(s) used to collect it.

Store Data

Record data in a format that allows it to be easily accessed or obtained.

Students can explain how data can be stored in different ways, and that each approach has advantages and disadvantages. The best way to store data is often dependent on the problem being solved or the method it will be processed/interpreted.

Validate Data

Ensuring data is "clean" - i.e. correct and useful to the problem being solved.

Students can analyse the correctness of the data, how it addresses the problem, and the validity of sources used. They understand the concept of bias in data, and how this can lead to skewed interpretation of results.

Data Privacy Requirements

Using data must not infringe upon the privacy of the user(s) the data pertains to.

Students can make judgements about whether data being collected is necessary to solve the problem, and if having that data exposes them to potential legal or ethical issues if it is misused or inadvertently exposed e.g. do you really need to know a person's income for your application?

Data Security Requirements

The storage and collection of data should abide by best practice security techniques.

Students can identify why the methods you use to store and collect data should be secure, protecting that data from potential risks. This includes things like transferring data only using encrypted channels, or not storing passwords or sensitive information in cleartext in databases.

Data interpretation
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Analyse and visualise data to create information and address complex problems, and model processes, entities and their relationships using structured data (ACTDIP037)

Organise data

Organise data explores the ways we order, sort and arrange data to assist us with interpretation in different contexts.

Visualise data

Visualise data describes the many ways we present data in its raw and summarised form for communication and further analysis.

Analyse Data

Examine data methodically and in detail to explain or interpret it.

Students can investigate problems that may not have conclusive answers, and analysis of the data may lead to a strengthening of one view or another. Analysis may involve further data collection and analysis to make a conclusion about a hypothesis.

Data Modelling

To reorganise or restructure data to highlight different properties, or to enable new or alternative means of processing or analysing it.

Students can understand the defined relationships between sets of data (e.g. the relationship between income and job), and consider ways of formatting or structuring their data to allow for ease of manipulation and analysis both manually and using software. This includes how data may define a process, such as its transformation over time, and how that would be represented.

Visualise Data

Display data in various ways that either assists with understanding its meaning or allows for new meaning to be inferred.

Students can contrast the different or conflicting positions data can communicate when visualised in different ways. They consider the preferred method of visualisation to communicate as effectively as possible.

Specification
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Define and decompose real-world problems precisely, taking into account functional and non-functional requirements and including interviewing stakeholders to identify needs (ACTDIP038)

Problem definition

Problem definition is the process we follow and considerations we make to determine and describe the problems we intend to solve.

Constraints

Constraints describe the restricting factors we face when solving problems, and how we factor these into our planned solutions.

Describe Problems

Determining the nature and description of a problem to be solved.

Students can describe the problems they are investigating in great detail, taking into account many factors and using precise language. This includes having multiple potential results.

Decompose Problems

Breaking a problem down into smaller, simpler problems that can be solved separately.

Students can investigate complex problems that require them to think about how they should be broken down to make them more manageable. The smaller problems they do identify can be defined in great detail, and relationships between those problems clearly understood.

Stakeholder Input

Using input from others affected by the problem to gain multiple perspectives on its nature.

Students can draw on input from other people who are either affected by or otherwise have a stake in the issue to determine the parameters of the problem they are solving. This ensures the problem considers perspectives that may differ from their own.

Requirements and Constraints

The parameters and limitations that help to define the boundaries or restrictions of the problem's scope.

Students can define problems in terms of their purpose (i.e. what they are trying to solve), and do so taking into account limitations that their solution may face. Limitations may take the form of financial or technology constraints, or may consider things such as the impact any solution may have on the local environment or population.

Algorithms
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Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in structured English and validate algorithms and programs through tracing and test cases (ACTDIP040)

Follow algorithms

Follow algorithms is the process of performing the steps required to solve a problem.

Design algorithms

Design algorithms captures the solution design we undertake to develop an automated solution to a problem.

Algorithm constructs

Algorithm constructs are the building blocks we use to define our algorithms in a form digital systems can execute.

Evaluate Algorithms

Verifying the correctness and reliability of the result of following sequence of steps. Includes testing of known inputs/outputs and likely edge cases.

Students can explain the tests and edge-conditions on a variety of inputs that confirm the correctness of their algorithm.

Design and modify algorithms

Changing a sequence of instructions to alter the resulting output from the same inputs the next time the sequence is followed.

Students can distinguish between situations when a general algorithm can be altered to meet a different purpose, or when a new solution needs to be developed due to more specialised needs.

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students can produce flowcharts and pseudocode that include branching and iteration, and describe the solution to complex problems precisely and unambiguously.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Algorithm constructs in band 9-10.
Implementation
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Implement modular programs, applying selected algorithms and data structures including using an object-oriented programming language (ACTDIP041)

Complexity

Complexity is an indication of the scope and difficulty of the solution being implemented as a digital solution.

Programming constructs

Programming constructs are the fundamental principles of program control flow we use in programming languages.

Programming

Programming describes the process of constructing a digital solution using a form of computer-understandable instructions.

Implement Digital Solutions

Create a digital solution that addresses a problem or need using a programming language.

Students can write original code that solves defined problems for the general case correctly.

Algorithms

Translate an algorithm (either predetermined or designed by the student) into code for execution in a computer program.

Students can correctly implement a variety of algorithms they are presented with.

Modularity

The construction of more complex computer programs is achieved most efficiently through the separation of related parts of the program into separate files. This makes it easier to manage, allows for simpler collaboration, and reduces the likelihood of errors. It also allows separate program modules to be reused in other projects.

Students can develop programs that are large and complex enough such that the code is split between multiple files. Each file, or module, can then be used in other projects as necessary.

Data Structures

The way data is organised for storage and processing inside a computer program. The choice of data structure is dependent on many factors e.g. related collections of data might be stored together in an array (list) or hash table (dictionary), and more complex models of data could be stored as user-defined classes.

Students can use more complicated data structures, such as arrays (lists) and dictionaries, to manage the information that a program requires.

Object-Oriented Programming

The organisation and processing of the data inside a computer program using user-defined classes. Object-oriented programming languages support the concepts of class definition, inheritance and polymorphism.

Students can define their own objects (classes) to model and manage how data is stored and processed. They can use inheritance and polymorphism appropriately in their solutions to simplify their code.

Impact
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Evaluate critically how student solutions and existing information systems and policies, take account of future risks and sustainability and provide opportunities for innovation and enterprise (ACTDIP042)

Information systems

Information systems describe the solutions developed by people that make use of data and systems.

Users

Users are the people who benefit from or control information systems.

Evaluation considerations

Evaluation considerations is concerned with how we factor the intended and unintended impacts of our solutions into our designs and implementation strategies.

Student solutions

The answers and products students develop themselves as solutions to problems.

Students can produce their own solutions to problems, but regularly reflect upon and re-evaluate the effectiveness of their solution. Constantly revisiting how well it addresses the problem requirements informs the iterative development process.

Information systems

A combination of digital systems, data, processes, and people that interact to create, control, and communicate information

Students can critique existing solutions and use this process to identify the common mistakes, shortcomings and/or strengths inherent in systems generally to inform decisions about their own solutions. It also encourages them to think more deeply about their own solutions and how they can improve upon existing ones.

Policies

Guiding principles or actions that influence the processes or approaches adopted when addressing problems.

Students can appreciate how policies around the use and application of systems are necessary for the safe and effective use of systems as their complexity increases. Students should be thinking about appropriate guidelines for the use of their solution to ensure the efficacy of the solution and to minimise any potential harmful impacts.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Users in band 9-10.
Sustainability

A broad interpretation of sustainability looks at many aspects of digital systems that make them viable over the long term, including their environmental impacts, economics and profitability, technical developments and changes, and social perceptions.

Students can analyse the often competing concerns of sustainability (economic, environmental, social etc) and propose an appropriate balance in a solution design. An example may be how economic sustainability often means minimises costs, but doing so may have increased environmental or social consequences. Students understand which factors contribute to how these decisions are made, and should do so through interrogation of existing systems large and small, before applying this thinking to their own ideas.

Risk

There are always unintended consequences of developing or introducing new technologies and/or systems, and being able to identify potential problems is key to understanding the impact they are likely to have on individuals, the environment and broader society.

Students can both identify risks, and strategies to mitigate them as best they can in the design and implementation of their solutions. This includes performing risk assessments (although this doesn't require a formal process) to determine likelihood and consequences, and use this information to decide on an appropriate course of action.

Innovation and enterprise

The application of digital technologies to either new problems, or existing problems in alternative or new ways. The concept of innovation should be interpreted with respect to what students know and understand - innovation for a student could be development of a solution similar to an existing one if the application of the concepts is new for them.

Students can explain how their solutions adopt new or alternative approaches to existing problems as a focus of innovation. This includes looking at why these solutions may not already exist or the challenges facing adoption (e.g. the tech for self-driving cars is developing, but laws and social perceptions will take longer). Students should now be thinking about how they could advance their solutions from being conceptual prototypes to marketable solutions for more widespread adoption. Thinking about the needs the solution serves and how you could market the benefits of this to consumers in a "call to action" to generate interest and excitement becomes the next phase of communicating the benefits of new ideas.

Interactions
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Design the user experience of a digital system by evaluating alternative designs against criteria including functionality, accessibility, usability, and aesthetics (ACTDIP039)

Create interactive solutions for sharing ideas and information online, taking into account safety, social contexts and legal responsibilities (ACTDIP043)

Plan and manage projects using an iterative and collaborative approach, identifying risks and considering safety and sustainability (ACTDIP044)

Create and communicate

Create and communicate involves using digital systems to present and communicate ideas and information.

Collaborate and manage

Collaborate and manage involves organising and controlling processes, people and resources in the development of solutions.

Human-computer interaction

Human-computer interaction describes the considerations and design decisions we make when building interfaces to digital systems.

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students can explain how their solutions to problems could be translatable to different domains that share common elements. The design of modular solutions that include components that can be re-sued or adapted for use in alternative situations helps demonstrate that ideas and information are translatable across domains.

Collaborate Online

Using online tools that facilitate text, audio and video communication to interact with other people working on a common project.

Students can participate meaningfully in online space in the public realm through the use of relevant collaborative platforms (an example might be Github and StackOverflow for code development). The use of these tools link students with the broader community, giving them a larger audience and allowing them to access expertise and experience beyond the classroom.

Safety

Developing clear rules, structures and restrictions around collaborative processes that ensure the wellbeing, security and physical health of all participants.

Students can take responsibility for their personal safety and actions both physically and online. The inclusion of the general public in their audience and as potential collaborators requires respectful and careful communication and publishing of their work, and should involve all members of the team involved in the project to ensure a shared responsibility for risk.

Social Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that allow all members to feel comfortable and safe when working together.

Students can incorporate social sensitivity and contexts into their solutions and processes, communicating with others respectfully and managing their interactions with people online. This entails respecting differences and how this may impact the experiences and knowledge people they interact with bring with them, and learning how this should influence their behaviour, choice of language and general presentation.

Plan Projects

Developing an approach or strategy to solve a problem or create a solution that considers the sources of data, resources available and potential timeframes or deadlines.

Students can use greater detail and explicit strategies during planning that mitigate or avoid potential risks or project delays. Students are aware of the limitations they face around resourcing, time and expertise available, and factor this into their project by including prototyping and MVP deliverables.

Manage Projects

Using techniques, strategies and approaches to monitor progress towards development of a solution, and to re-evaluate or alter strategies to ensure deadlines are met and outcomes achieved within the resources available.

Students can use the strategies they are taught to review and update their progress and project expectations regularly throughout the development process. They adapt to external disruptions and influences, and ensure that at the conclusion of the project a solution is delivered that prioritises key functionality requirements.

Iterative Approach

A process of rapid prototyping and constant re-evaluation of the efficacy and appropriateness of the solution. Allows for the scope of a problem to be gradually expanded, building upon previous solutions, experiments and ideas.

Students can demonstrate an iterative process of development, designing prototypes and regularly evaluating them and changing their approach as they gather feedback and test the efficacy of their solutions. This reinforces the importance of meeting core requirements, and provides increased opportunity for testing and responding to stakeholder needs.

Collaborative Approach

A process that involves regular input, criticism and feedback from multiple stakeholders to refine, improve and evaluate proposed solutions.

Student can use a collaborative approach that allows them to work on larger projects where their contributions are focused on key components of a larger solution and must integrate with the work of others. The breadth of expertise and knowledge in the group becomes necessary for the project's success.

Risks

Potential problems or concerns that may expose the solution, developer or user to danger or harm, or could prevent a project from being completed.

Students can describe the risks they are exposed to when working on larger, more public projects, and compare these with similar risks typically faced by small development teams. These include resourcing, privacy and security risks, as well as those associated with online collaboration and publishing. They should be developing strategies for both avoidance and mitigation, and be selecting the most relevant approaches within the context of their project.

Sustainability

In terms of project management, sustainability considers all aspects of the project life cycle from inception to conclusion, including resourcing, project development and maintenance after completion.

Students can use a range of planning and management strategies that make explicit reference to the sustainability of the project / solution, and consider sustainability from multiple angles (including economic, environmental, social and technical sustainability). How they plan to ensure the solution satisfies this requirement should be clearly evident in their solution design and implementation.

User Experience

Encompasses all details of the user's interaction with the system, not just the physical or on-screen elements. Considers the practical aspects such as ease of use, as well as emotive aspects such as how enjoyable it is to use.

Students can design engaging user experiences, considering aesthetics, functionality and the feeling of enjoyment and satisfaction of the user. Students do this through more rigorous user testing by interviewing stakeholders specifically about their experiences and using that to inform changes and improvements to the UX design.

Evaluating Designs

Comparing and contrasting different approaches or solutions to a problem in a systematic way to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Students can critique the efficacy of solutions using the information gathered from users against the requirements and criteria they've established as a measure of success. The evaluation of the suitability and effectiveness of a design includes direct comparisons between alternatives as well as against objective criteria.

Evaluation Criteria

A set of explicit, measurable and observable benchmarks that can be used to determine the success of a solution against a set of requirements.

Students can engage in a more formalised process to establish the objective criteria they will use to determine the suitability of a design. This involves setting measurable indicators against the functional requirements as specified in the problem definition, accessibility and usability factors specifically identified as important to the target user group, and aesthetic elements that incorporate social and audience expectations.