Understand the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies

Australian Digital Technologies Curriculum:

Interactions

How users experience and interface with digital systems, and how we use them to communicate and collaborate.

Interactions
F-2 Unpack > 3-4 Unpack > 5-6 Unpack > 7-8 Unpack > 9-10 Unpack >

F-2

Create and organise ideas and information using information systems independently and with others, and share these with known people in safe online environments (ACTDIP006)

3-4

Plan, create and communicate ideas and information independently and with others, applying agreed ethical and social protocols (ACTDIP013)

5-6

Design a user interface for a digital system (ACTDIP018)

Plan, create and communicate ideas and information, including collaboratively online, applying agreed ethical, social and technical protocols (ACTDIP022)

7-8

Design the user experience of a digital system, generating, evaluating and communicating alternative designs (ACTDIP028)

Plan and manage projects that create and communicate ideas and information collaboratively online, taking safety and social contexts into account (ACTDIP032)

9-10

Design the user experience of a digital system by evaluating alternative designs against criteria including functionality, accessibility, usability, and aesthetics (ACTDIP039)

Create interactive solutions for sharing ideas and information online, taking into account safety, social contexts and legal responsibilities (ACTDIP043)

Plan and manage projects using an iterative and collaborative approach, identifying risks and considering safety and sustainability (ACTDIP044)

Create and communicate

Create and communicate involves using digital systems to present and communicate ideas and information.

F-2

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students use familiar information systems to share information with others (e.g. using presentation software to share holiday photos).

3-4

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students can describe how executing their plan effectively will allow them to gather data and inform their next steps. This should lead to them being able to conclude the process with an answer, or at least a new question that needs to be answered.

5-6

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students can reflect on their progress against their plan and explain how what they learn and discover changes from their initial thinking is a part of the creation process. Students should be challenged to check the correctness of their conclusions at each stage of the process, ensuring their understanding of ideas and information is deeper and more thorough than may otherwise be the case.

7-8

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students can solve problems that require solutions that work with multiple data sets and more complex models of data. Through the use of a broader set of inputs, students gain greater insight into not only the problem they're solving, but problems related to or associated with it, and this informs their thinking and/or conclusions.

9-10

Create and communicate ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students can explain how their solutions to problems could be translatable to different domains that share common elements. The design of modular solutions that include components that can be re-sued or adapted for use in alternative situations helps demonstrate that ideas and information are translatable across domains.

Collaborate and manage

Collaborate and manage involves organising and controlling processes, people and resources in the development of solutions.

F-2

Independently

Completing a task or activity on your own, drawing on pre-existing knowledge and skills.

Students perform a task without support (e.g. following instructions previously given by the teacher to record a conversation with a family member).

Group work

Individual contributions are made to a project by members of a group.

Students create individual pieces of work that contribute to a group task (e.g. each student contributes a recipe and photo of their favourite food to create a class recipe book).

Share with known people

Publishing information in a safe online environment to people you interact with regularly.

Students demonstrate their learning to close friends and family without risk (e.g. through student portfolios in a school parent portal).

3-4

Plan Ideas and Information

Developing an approach, strategy or identifying sources useful to investigate a problem and/or develop a solution.

Students can appreciate the value of identifying the steps they should follow to solve a problem before they start their investigations. This includes things like knowing where to look for data and who they might ask for help. At this stage, it is about developing a simple strategy that they can follow confidently, and scaffolding from the teacher is likely required.

Independently

Completing a task or activity on your own, drawing on pre-existing knowledge and skills.

Students can undertake their own independent investigations with a specific goal in mind. That goal should be clearly defined so that students can determine for themselves if progress is being made.

Group work

Individual contributions are made to a project by members of a group.

Students can confidently share their knowledge and skills with others when working on common problems, especially when the solution will affect multiple people. They should be encouraged to share what they know with others and to use these interactions to consolidate their own understanding.

Ethical Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that encourage behaving with integrity and respect when interacting and communicating with others.

Students can appreciate the value of ethical and respectful interactions with others. They understand why the way we use data is important, and how decisions made by the individual can impact others in group situations. Instilling in them the idea that you should consider the feelings of others will help facilitate closer collaboration.

Social Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that allow all members to feel comfortable and safe when working together.

Students can manage their interactions with others effectively. They begin to form an understanding of how their actions - both direct and indirect - affect their relationships with others and what the implications for this are on all aspects of their lives.

5-6

Plan Ideas and Information

Developing an approach, strategy or identifying sources useful to investigate a problem and/or develop a solution.

Students can describe their plans by specifying the steps they intend to take to solve their problem and how long it might take to find the answers to questions they are investigating. This introduces the idea of projects being things that don't start and end immediately.

Collaborate Online

Using online tools that facilitate text, audio and video communication to interact with other people working on a common project.

Students can use online tools to collaborate both in real-time and asynchronously, and learn the benefits and challenges associated with each. They should be complementing online collaboration with face-to-face opportunities where possible, and those meetings could include discussion of the challenges they are learning about and how they may be addressed.

Ethical Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that encourage behaving with integrity and respect when interacting and communicating with others.

Students can act honestly and with integrity in their interactions with others, and consider the appropriateness of how data is used and the implications of poor data privacy for the users of solutions.

Social Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that allow all members to feel comfortable and safe when working together.

Students can explain how their actions have consequences for their relationships with others, and are empathetic to any social experiences and beliefs that may differ between members in the group. They consider how these need to be factored into both their solutions and their collaborative relationships.

Technical Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that determine the technologies and technical approaches the group will use to collaborate on a project, such as programming languages, development platforms and style guides.

Students can think deeply about the technical decisions they make when developing their solutions and collaborating. These include things such as decisions about how files are named and where they are stored (e.g. cloud vs local), platforms and programming languages they may be using to create their solutions, and the implications of their choices for their peers and users.

7-8

Plan Projects

Developing an approach or strategy to solve a problem or create a solution that considers the sources of data, resources available and potential timeframes or deadlines.

Students can develop plans for solutions with greater autonomy, relying on their previous experiences to guide their thinking and approach. They should plan both individual and collaborative tasks, and supported to better understand how the dynamics of group activities changes the planning process.

Manage Projects

Using techniques, strategies and approaches to monitor progress towards development of a solution, and to re-evaluate or alter strategies to ensure deadlines are met and outcomes achieved within the resources available.

Students can collaborate effectively, thinking about the many facets of managing the exchange of ideas as well as the assets and resources of their projects. This includes regular monitoring of progress, and the provision of feedback to other members of any collaborative activity.

Collaborate Online

Using online tools that facilitate text, audio and video communication to interact with other people working on a common project.

Students can collaborate effectively online, discussing strategy, approaches to solving problems, and engage in shared document / asset creation, such as managing cloud storage and common code repositories. Applications designed specifically for online collaboration become a key part of the working toolset.

Safety

Developing clear rules, structures and restrictions around collaborative processes that ensure the wellbeing, security and physical health of all participants.

Students can outline risks associated with online collaboration, and suggest ways they can mitigate these risks through careful selection and appropriate use of tools and platforms. This includes the management of relevant security protocols (such as permissions on assets) and knowing how their data is protected through transmission and storage. It also involves taking appropriate personal actions, like communicating only with known/trusted people and restricting the data they share through their collaborative processes.

Social Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that allow all members to feel comfortable and safe when working together.

Students can explain how their decisions about their solutions and collaboration practices impact the experiences and beliefs of others not just within, but outside of their social circles. This social sensitivity and empathy should be factored into all aspects of their solution design and presentation.

9-10

Collaborate Online

Using online tools that facilitate text, audio and video communication to interact with other people working on a common project.

Students can participate meaningfully in online space in the public realm through the use of relevant collaborative platforms (an example might be Github and StackOverflow for code development). The use of these tools link students with the broader community, giving them a larger audience and allowing them to access expertise and experience beyond the classroom.

Safety

Developing clear rules, structures and restrictions around collaborative processes that ensure the wellbeing, security and physical health of all participants.

Students can take responsibility for their personal safety and actions both physically and online. The inclusion of the general public in their audience and as potential collaborators requires respectful and careful communication and publishing of their work, and should involve all members of the team involved in the project to ensure a shared responsibility for risk.

Social Protocols

Agreed upon rules and guidelines that allow all members to feel comfortable and safe when working together.

Students can incorporate social sensitivity and contexts into their solutions and processes, communicating with others respectfully and managing their interactions with people online. This entails respecting differences and how this may impact the experiences and knowledge people they interact with bring with them, and learning how this should influence their behaviour, choice of language and general presentation.

Plan Projects

Developing an approach or strategy to solve a problem or create a solution that considers the sources of data, resources available and potential timeframes or deadlines.

Students can use greater detail and explicit strategies during planning that mitigate or avoid potential risks or project delays. Students are aware of the limitations they face around resourcing, time and expertise available, and factor this into their project by including prototyping and MVP deliverables.

Manage Projects

Using techniques, strategies and approaches to monitor progress towards development of a solution, and to re-evaluate or alter strategies to ensure deadlines are met and outcomes achieved within the resources available.

Students can use the strategies they are taught to review and update their progress and project expectations regularly throughout the development process. They adapt to external disruptions and influences, and ensure that at the conclusion of the project a solution is delivered that prioritises key functionality requirements.

Iterative Approach

A process of rapid prototyping and constant re-evaluation of the efficacy and appropriateness of the solution. Allows for the scope of a problem to be gradually expanded, building upon previous solutions, experiments and ideas.

Students can demonstrate an iterative process of development, designing prototypes and regularly evaluating them and changing their approach as they gather feedback and test the efficacy of their solutions. This reinforces the importance of meeting core requirements, and provides increased opportunity for testing and responding to stakeholder needs.

Collaborative Approach

A process that involves regular input, criticism and feedback from multiple stakeholders to refine, improve and evaluate proposed solutions.

Student can use a collaborative approach that allows them to work on larger projects where their contributions are focused on key components of a larger solution and must integrate with the work of others. The breadth of expertise and knowledge in the group becomes necessary for the project's success.

Risks

Potential problems or concerns that may expose the solution, developer or user to danger or harm, or could prevent a project from being completed.

Students can describe the risks they are exposed to when working on larger, more public projects, and compare these with similar risks typically faced by small development teams. These include resourcing, privacy and security risks, as well as those associated with online collaboration and publishing. They should be developing strategies for both avoidance and mitigation, and be selecting the most relevant approaches within the context of their project.

Sustainability

In terms of project management, sustainability considers all aspects of the project life cycle from inception to conclusion, including resourcing, project development and maintenance after completion.

Students can use a range of planning and management strategies that make explicit reference to the sustainability of the project / solution, and consider sustainability from multiple angles (including economic, environmental, social and technical sustainability). How they plan to ensure the solution satisfies this requirement should be clearly evident in their solution design and implementation.

Human-computer interaction

Human-computer interaction describes the considerations and design decisions we make when building interfaces to digital systems.

F-2

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Human-computer interaction in band F-2.

3-4

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Human-computer interaction in band 3-4.

5-6

User Interfaces

Characteristics and elements of the digital system that determine how the user interacts with it. Includes things like buttons and prompts for text entry.

Students can demonstrate their thinking and understanding of how interactions could take place without the complexity of programming or application use that may be beyond their experience at this stage. The focus should be on how the interfaces they design facilitate interaction, and their ability to communicate the reasons behind their design decisions.

7-8

User Experience

Encompasses all details of the user's interaction with the system, not just the physical or on-screen elements. Considers the practical aspects such as ease of use, as well as emotive aspects such as how enjoyable it is to use.

Students can incorporate functional and aesthetic requirements, factors such as the expertise and background of users, accessibility and usability requirements into the overall impact use of the solution has on the user's enjoyment and experience of the solution.

Generating Designs

Developing multiple prototypes or models that express either a range of design ideas, or alternative approaches to a single problem.

Students can generate a range of possible designs that may favour particular functions, features or use cases.

Evaluating Designs

Comparing and contrasting different approaches or solutions to a problem in a systematic way to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Students can analyse multiple designs to gain insight into the most important features of the user experience. This allows for an iterative and more thorough approach to development of the chosen solution which may borrow elements from all proposals.

9-10

User Experience

Encompasses all details of the user's interaction with the system, not just the physical or on-screen elements. Considers the practical aspects such as ease of use, as well as emotive aspects such as how enjoyable it is to use.

Students can design engaging user experiences, considering aesthetics, functionality and the feeling of enjoyment and satisfaction of the user. Students do this through more rigorous user testing by interviewing stakeholders specifically about their experiences and using that to inform changes and improvements to the UX design.

Evaluating Designs

Comparing and contrasting different approaches or solutions to a problem in a systematic way to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Students can critique the efficacy of solutions using the information gathered from users against the requirements and criteria they've established as a measure of success. The evaluation of the suitability and effectiveness of a design includes direct comparisons between alternatives as well as against objective criteria.

Evaluation Criteria

A set of explicit, measurable and observable benchmarks that can be used to determine the success of a solution against a set of requirements.

Students can engage in a more formalised process to establish the objective criteria they will use to determine the suitability of a design. This involves setting measurable indicators against the functional requirements as specified in the problem definition, accessibility and usability factors specifically identified as important to the target user group, and aesthetic elements that incorporate social and audience expectations.