Understand the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies

Australian Digital Technologies Curriculum:

Algorithms

The precise sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve a problem. They often involve iterative (repeated) processes.

Algorithms
F-2 Unpack > 3-4 Unpack > 5-6 Unpack > 7-8 Unpack > 9-10 Unpack >

F-2

Follow, describe and represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems (ACTDIP004)

3-4

Define simple problems, and describe and follow a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve them (ACTDIP010)

5-6

Design, modify and follow simple algorithms involving sequences of steps, branching, and iteration (repetition) (ACTDIP019)

7-8

Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in English, and trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors (ACTDIP029)

9-10

Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in structured English and validate algorithms and programs through tracing and test cases (ACTDIP040)

Follow algorithms

Follow algorithms is the process of performing the steps required to solve a problem.

F-2

Follow algorithms

Follow an ordered sequence of steps to solve a simple problem or complete a task.

Students follow a short ordered sequence of steps and make decisions to solve a simple problem (e.g follow a recipe or directions to reach a location).

3-4

Follow algorithms

Follow an ordered sequence of steps to solve a simple problem or complete a task.

Students precisely follow the steps and decisions of increasingly detailed algorithms (e.g. follow rules to form progressive verbs such as eat to eating, run to running, make to making), and know what step they are up to (e.g. checking off items on a list as they are completed)

5-6

Follow algorithms

Follow an ordered sequence of steps to solve a simple problem or complete a task.

Students can follow an algorithm and understand how the problem is being solved.

7-8

Evaluate Algorithms

Verifying the correctness and reliability of the result of following sequence of steps. Includes testing of known inputs/outputs and likely edge cases.

Students can follow the state of values through an algorithm, and predict what the output would be given an input. Students should understand the desired output of the algorithm to be able to tell when an error has occurred based on this information.

9-10

Evaluate Algorithms

Verifying the correctness and reliability of the result of following sequence of steps. Includes testing of known inputs/outputs and likely edge cases.

Students can explain the tests and edge-conditions on a variety of inputs that confirm the correctness of their algorithm.

Design algorithms

Design algorithms captures the solution design we undertake to develop an automated solution to a problem.

F-2

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students describe the steps and decisions (in the correct order) required to solve a simple problem (e.g. write, say, draw, or photograph the steps needed to make a sandwich).

3-4

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students describe their algorithms using structured representations that such as lists, flowcharts, labels and symbols that contain implicit meaning (e.g. labeling where the chorus is sung in a song; creating a number sentence from a written problem).

5-6

Design and modify algorithms

Changing a sequence of instructions to alter the resulting output from the same inputs the next time the sequence is followed.

Students can take an existing algorithm and change it so that it solves a derivative problem from the original one. This may include expanding the scope of the problem (e.g. adding additional conditions to branching statements) or changing some of the steps to generate a variant of the output.

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students can represent algorithmic solutions using greater sophistication and more detail for each step in the algorithm, and use additional features such as iteration.

7-8

Design and modify algorithms

Changing a sequence of instructions to alter the resulting output from the same inputs the next time the sequence is followed.

Students can change an existing algorithm to suit a new set of requirements that differs from the original intent, and identify when it is more appropriate to develop a new solution to the problem.

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students can design and represent algorithms in multiple forms, such as diagrams like flowcharts and informal pseudocode.

9-10

Design and modify algorithms

Changing a sequence of instructions to alter the resulting output from the same inputs the next time the sequence is followed.

Students can distinguish between situations when a general algorithm can be altered to meet a different purpose, or when a new solution needs to be developed due to more specialised needs.

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps using words and images.

Students can produce flowcharts and pseudocode that include branching and iteration, and describe the solution to complex problems precisely and unambiguously.

Algorithm constructs

Algorithm constructs are the building blocks we use to define our algorithms in a form digital systems can execute.

F-2

Sequence of steps

An sequence of steps (instructions) where order might or might not matter.

Students understand when the order of steps is important (e.g. socks must go on before shoes) or when they can be reordered without changing the outcome (e.g. jumper can go on before or after shoes).

Branching (decisions)

Branching involves following different steps based on a yes/no decision.

Students understand when and why decisions are required to determine the next step to follow in an algorithm (e.g. if it is raining, take a raincoat, otherwise take a hat).

3-4

Sequence of steps

An sequence of steps (instructions) where order might or might not matter.

Students understand that there can be more than one way to solve a problem, that some solutions are shorter than others, and that the instructions given must be unambiguous (e.g. walk to the wall and turn left vs. walk forward 7 steps then turn left)

Branching (decisions)

Branching involves following different steps based on a yes/no decision.

Students can produce decisions in their algorithms that require numerical comparisons, text comparisons or may involve multiple sources of data. Their algorithm may also involve nested decisions - when new decisions need to be made after previous decisions, and these may never return to a common sequence of later steps in the algorithm.

5-6

Sequence of steps

An sequence of steps (instructions) where order might or might not matter.

Student can describe the sequence of steps in an algorithm in more detail, breaking the task down into smaller, more specific steps.

Branching (decisions)

Branching involves following different steps based on a yes/no decision.

Students can develop decisions in algorithms that deal with more generalised cases and account for edge-cases and multiple requirements (for example, making any type of sandwich, factoring in dietary requirements)

Iteration

Specifying that a sequence of instructions are to be repeated as long as the result of testing a specific condition is true.

Students can describe algorithms in greater detail by using iteration (doing things multiple times) to ensure that a task is complete before moving onto the next task. For example, keep spreading the butter until the whole piece of bread is covered.

7-8

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Algorithm constructs in band 7-8.

9-10

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Algorithm constructs in band 9-10.